Tiny questions with quick answers - continuing thread



i’m almost done with challenge 1

but this word “improve” is very hard for me to pronounce …can you spell it out phonetically for me, please…and with the softening too


If you look underneath each lesson on the website, there’s a link to a vocabulary list which should pop up in a little new window for you… :slight_smile:

This one is ‘gwella’ or ‘wella’… the problem you might be having there is with the ‘ll’ sound… which is really just L with a bit of added h… so if you practise going ‘s’->‘shhhh’, ‘t’->‘thhhhh’, ‘p’->‘phhhhh’ to get the feel for what adding a bit of breath is like, and then put your tongue in the position for L, and then figure out a way to let some air out while you’re saying it… :slight_smile:


It’ll come with practice! Took me a while to get used to it. Turned out I had my mouth open too wide…!


I guess that ll sound is one of the toughest for most of us learners @markie-1
When I first tried to repeat that sound I did a lot of unnecessary effort! :smiley:

The training that worked for me was:

  1. finding a song I enjoyed that had a lot of that sound in it and just sing it along a million times - in my case was “Hollol, hollol, hollol”. :grin: (note: I still have no idea of what those lyrics say, but it doesn’t really matter)
  2. watching a few YouTube videos to see how face/mouth looks when someone pronounce it correctly
  3. listen to a few explanation on how it should be pronounced

After a while, it became much easier.


In the Southern course, Iestyn does a great job of explaining how to say ‘ll’ properly. Just follow his instructions and practice it for a bit. It will come and you will have many more opportunities to practice the ‘ll’ sound.

No worries, Markie-1, you’ll get it soon enough. :smile:



does this work?

maeisiau i fi cofio mynd’i nofio araf yn y afon

or maybe there is a yn before araf?


If you’re going for “I need to remember to go swimming slowly in the river” then yes, you need a “yn” before “araf” to change “slow” into “slowly”.




When to use â and efo. Both mean “with” and I’m struggling trying to figure out when each is appropriate.
Nes i cwrdd â rhwyun - I met with someone
Nes i eisiau siarad efo rhwyun - I wanted to speak with someone.

I know if I mix them up, I’ll still be understood. Pretty sure, I’ve done that already :sweat_smile: multiple times. Since I live in the US without a convenient person to speak with daily, I talk to myself. I’d like to learn the rule so I can correct myself.

Diolch ymlaen llaw


I know that I’m going…
Is it…Dw i’n gwybod mod i’n mynd…

Or perhaps…
Dw i’n gwybod bo’ fi’n mynd…

Or either? Diolch


Both are fine. If you are aiming for natural spoken Welsh, definitely go for the second one, though.


As a general rule, â is with when referring to using an implement (e.g. wedi torri â chyllell - cut with a knife) as if you’re saying with as in “by means of”.
gyda is used when referring to “in the company of” (e.g. mynd i’r tafarn gyda fy ffrind - going to the pub with my friend).

gyda is also the one for possession (in southern Welsh) of course.
However. â is also a preposition that naturally follows some verbs. With some of these, the ‘with’ makes sense (cwrdd â, siarad â), but then with others it’s there but doesn’t translate to ‘with’ (paid â).
two special ones are when it is attached to mynd and dod - normally these are followed by i or o (because to go or come to or from!) but by using the â, you turn them into take (mynd â) and bring (dod â).

I hope that hasn’t confused things even more for you!


efo / gyda being the same meaning - with (accompanying)

Efo heard in North Wales only generally…no idea why they are so different in spelling


Not quite the same meaning, in as much as “gyda” is used for possession in the South, whereas this role is filled by “gan”, and not “efo”, i’n the North.


Its wôrking now :slight_smile: I don’t think I had installed it properly the first time.


Not at all, Siaron. It clarified perfectly, as I knew about “dod â” but “mynd â” (take) is new. Diolch yn fawr.


How might I say “might”? As in the sentence “How might I say ‘might’”.


My instinct would be to use gallu or medru here…

Intrigued to hear others answers :slight_smile:

(@aran Emma is on the phone to her mam before you tell me off again :wink:)


‘might’ is a tricky one because there is no one word that corresponds directly - in English, ‘might’ is a way of saying ‘may’ and in Welsh, there are lots of ways to say ‘may’! There are examples in the Geiriadur Academi but you have to look under ‘may’.


Helo, SwissToni
I’m still a learner myself and when I’m creating Welsh sentences, most times there are words I want to say that I do not know the Welsh equivalent. My first action is to think if I can say what I want with the limited vocabulary I currently possess. For your example, I would say, “Sut wyt ti’n deud ‘might’?” And most times I’m happy wth that. If I really need to know the word, then I hit my dictionaries.
Geiriadur Cymraeg Cyfoes (Modern Welsh Dictionary) by Gareth King says this for “Might” on page 382
"This verb has no exact equivalent in Welsh. Where it means ‘may’ phrasing with 'effallai (perhaps) or mae’n bosib (it’s possible) are used. For ‘might have’ gallu/medru + fod wedi <-@AnthonyCusack - great instincts (if you reply to this then Aran can tell you off :smile: -> is the equivalent for ‘might as well’.
Hope that helps.